Whats Eating Gilbert Grape sample essay

Get your original paper written from scratch starting at just $10 per page with a plagiarism report and free revisions included!









Hire A Writer

World War I was supposed to be the war that ended all wars. Instead it set the stage for future conflicts throughout the 20th Century. The people of the time called the conflict the Great War, and they believed that there would never again be another like it. Although the United States tried to remain neutral, it was eventually drawn into the conflict. The war had a profound effect on the nation, and touched upon many aspects of American life. When the war ended, the United States, and the world, was changed forever. Your Task: Place all of your answers in your computer notebook for the following questions. Your notebook should include pictures, maps and anything else you want to make your project the best. Please use the links provided and your textbook to answer the following: Area 1 : Choosing sides and war plans:

1. Using the map in your text pp. 375 and the chart on page 379, answer the following in your notebook. -Allied Powers (6 major countries) Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Serbia and the U.S -Central Powers (4 major countries) German, Hungarian, Turkish, Bulgarian -Neutrals (6 major countries) Switzerland, Sweden, Spain, Norway, Ireland, Denmark and the Netherlands. -What were the central and the allies called before the war? The Central powers were known before the war as the Triple alliance and before the war the Allies were known as the triple entente. 2. Which side did the United States eventually join? Why? All allied forces, The US had planned to stay out of the war at first. They would only send aid to the Allied Powers, but they did not fight. When Germany heard they were sending aid to the Allies, they got angry and bombed one of the supply ships, which really angered the US.

Thus, the US joined the war on the Allied side. 3. Which country switched sides just before the war started? Why? Italy was in the Triple Alliance but then switched to fight with Russia, Britain and France and don’t forget the U.S. 4. List and describe the four long term causes of World War I. Militarism- is when a country builds up on their army’s navy’s and weaponry. Alliances- A union or association formed for mutual benefit, esp. between countries or organizations. Imperialism- A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through diplomacy or military force. Nationalism- An extreme form of this, esp. marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries.

5. What was the spark! that led to the immediate cause of World War I? Murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria set-off chain reaction of national treaties guaranteeing alliances/protections and they honored those agreements until they were all at war with each other. 6. Who was General Schlieffen, and what was his plan for World War I? What was his country trying to avoid by implementing this plan? Alfred Von Schrieffen to help Germany win a war on two fronts – against France and Russia. The general gist of it was that Germany would attack France first as their army was the most organized. They would surprise the French by attacking through Belgium (not accounting for the fact that the UK would rush in to help, and that Belgium itself would put up a fight.) and spit in half… half would take the coast to defend against Britain, whilst the other half would circle round and take Paris. They expected Russia would take a few weeks to get ready for war by which time they would have captured France and be ready to fight Russia.

Area 2 : Weapons of War:

1) List and describe 4 weapons introduced in World War I. Be sure to explain their effectiveness and how they were used? Tank- The tank was first used at the little known Battle of Flers. It was then used with less success at the Battle of the Somme. Though the tank was highly unreliable – as one would expect from a new machine – it did a great deal to end the horrors of trench warfare and brought back some mobility to the Western Front. Gas- most feared of all weapons in World War One. Poison gas was indiscriminate and could be used on the trenches even when no attack was going on. Whereas the machine gun killed more soldiers overall during the war, death was frequently instant or not drawn out and soldiers could find some shelter in bomb/shell craters from gunfire.

A poison gas attack meant soldiers having to put on crude gas masks and if these were unsuccessful, an attack could leave a victim in agony for days and weeks before he finally succumbed to his injuries. Rifle- they used rifles to use people duhhhh.. they could only use those because they were in a trench and it was hard to get other stuff in there. Machinegun- Machine guns inflicted appalling casualties on both war fronts in World War One. Men who went over-the-top in trenches stood little chance when the enemy opened up with their machine guns. Machine guns were one of the main killers in the war and accounted for many thousands of deaths. 2) What is Propaganda? What were four reasons propaganda posters were used? Propoganda is the aim of getting people to believe your side of the story 1. They were trying to enlist people into the army.

2. They were trying to convince people to ‘ration’ the food they used and send the rest to the soldiers 3.They were trying to convince people to grow ‘victory gardens’ and send the food to soldiers 4. They were trying to show people the opposing side was a monster and to donate money/food/work to help the soldiers fight them 3) What nation produced the most posters throughout WWI? Germany. 4) Go to sidebar to the right and click on a couple of countries; England, U.S. and Germany. Are they similar? List some symbols, messages, similarities and differences, if any, in the posters. No they are not similar.

Area 3: Life in the Trenches:

1) What is trench foot? What caused trench foot? Trench foot is a condition of the foot resembling frostbite, caused by prolonged exposure to cold and dampness and often affecting soldiers in trenches. 2) What affects did it have on the body? What was the remedy for it? Trench foot is what you get when your feet have been exposed to long periods off wet, cold, and unsanitary conditions .If the infection was left to sit without medical attention for to long it could turn into gangrenous and have to be amputated. The remedy was for officers to change their socks at least 4 times a day and wear thigh high boots. 3) Read the diary entries from Thomas Fredrick Littler and answer the following: * Describe some common repetitive themes (tasks) of trench life. July 2nd 1916 (Sunday) We rested all day, and many of us are still a little shaky.

July 3rd 1916 We had a number of reinforcements sent to us, and paraded at 9-30 p.m and moved up the line to Foncquevillers a little to the north of Hebuterne and were billeted in cellars, turned out to work at 11-p.m and went up the trenches and in places we were waist deep in water, and at last got to the fire trench and went on top and put out 150yds of barbed wire and returned to billets at 4-30 in the morning. July 4th 1916 Put another 150 yrds of barbed wire on the top and the trenches were still waist deep in water July 5th 1916 Just the same as the day before.

* Define stalemate, How does the definition of this word describe life in the trenches? Stalemate in ww1 refers to the period throughout the war where trenches dominate the front-line. Like the definition stalemate, during this period the battle lines barely moved, so most historians refer to it as stalemate. 3) What was No Man’s Land? (Please be sure to describe at least three distinct features) “No Man’s Land” is the area of land between the trenches of the opposing forces. To get to “No Man’s Land” you had to crawl under barbed wire . While in “No Man’s Land” you were at high risk of dying as you could easily be shot dead by a sniper bullet. You were most likely be taken down by machine guns or simple assault rifles, if you went to “No Man’s Land” snipers were for long distances for the enemies who were in trenches. The machine guns that the Germans had were much more advanced; the English ones were more basic Area 4: America enters the War:

1) What was the Lusitania? What is the significance of the Lusitania in the War? How many people died and were there any Americans on board? Lusitania was a ship built by Cunard for the Admiralty, who loaned the shipbuilder 2,600,000 pounds for the construction of two ships, the Lusitania and her sister ship RMS Mauretania. Both ships were to be built to Admiralty standards for heavy cruisers and during time of war would be placed in the service of the British Navy. Carried Americans. On the Lusitania a total of 1,198 people died (785 passengers and 413 crew). Those killed included 128 US citizens. 2) How many Allied and Neutral ships were lost to submarines in 1917? How much total number of Allied and Neutral ships were sunk by submarines between 1914-1918? (Scroll down…it’s there!) there were 2,439 ships were lost. There were 4,837sunk.

3) What is the Zimmerman Telegram and who wrote it? Why did Americans feel threatened by this telegram? (Think Monroe Doctrine). The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note; Zimmermann-Depesche; Telegrama Zimmermann) was a 1917 proposal, Arthur Zimmermann wrote it. The British intercepted a telegram sent from Germany to Mexico asking the Mexicans to attack the U.S. if the U.S. got involved in WWI. They promised the Mexicans money and a return of AZ, CA, NM territory lost by the Mexicans to the U.S. in the Mexican American War of 1846-8. Mexico considered it, after all, they did not like the U.S. or Wilson, but were more afraid of the U.S. than Germany. Plus, Germany is 1000s of miles away… it was one of the factors that helped bring us into the war. 4) In the telegram, what did the German government decide to begin on Feb. 1, 1917? What was promised to Mexico in the telegram?

5) When does the Untied States declare war on Germany? Who was John J. Pershing? There were two major reasons. First off, the German U-Boats sank 3 passenger ships carrying US civilians and citizens. As if that wasn’t enough, the Germans sent the Zimmerman code, which was a code (intercepted and decoded by Britain) that asks Mexico to ally itself with the Axis (or, at least Germany). If Mexico does ally itself with the Axis, then the Axis would help Mexico take back some of the “original” Mexican lands that the US took over. Seeing this, the US got pissed (after a large amount of casualties and a lethal threat note) and began to attack (or, declare war on Germany). Because the British were also going against Germany, and Britain was once the US’ homeland, the US joined war on the Allies’ side. John. J. Pershing was a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I.

Pershing is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the United States Army—General of the Armies (a retroactive Congressional edict passed in 1976 promoted George Washington to the same rank but with higher seniority[1]). Pershing holds the first United States officer service number (O-1). He was regarded as a mentor by the generation of American generals who led the United States Army in Europe during World War II, including George C. Marshall, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar N. Bradley, and George S. Patton. 6) What was the Brest-Litovsk Treaty? How did it affect the fighting on the Western Front? (Think Schlieffen Plan) The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking Russia’s exit from World War I. it make fighting more intense on the western front. Area 5: Results of the War:

1) What was the name of President Wilson’s Speech to Congress on January 8, 1918? 14 points. 2) Through the points mentioned in the above article, how
does Wilson address: * Imperialism-
* Militarism-
* Navigation of the seas-
* International trade-
* Self-determination What does this mean-
* League of Nations-

3) How does the US Congress feel about the League of Nations? Why is this League set up for failure? 4) In Articles 231&232 of the Treaty of Versailles, what is Germany responsible for? 5) What happened to most of Wilson’s Points in the final draft of the Treaty of Versailles? Why? 6) What country lost the most soldiers, and has the most missing, How many American soldiers died and what was the total number of soldiers who died in the war? 7) When did the war end? When was the Treaty of Versailles signed? Why are these dates significant? 8) Why did this attitude of an unfair peace and US noninvolvement in the League of Nations help set up the foundations for a new world conflict? Reflection Assignment

Historical Context:

World War I was supposed to be the war that ended all wars. Instead it set the stage for future conflicts throughout the 20th Century. The people of the time called the conflict the Great War, and they believed that there would never again be another like it. Although the United States tried to remain neutral, it was eventually drawn into the conflict. The war had a profound effect on the nation, and touched upon many aspects of American life. When the war ended, the United States, and the world, was changed forever. Using the information acquired from your Webquest, write a well-constructed essay including the following: * An Introduction, body and conclusion.

* Evidence of proof reading—grammar and spelling do not interfere with the message. * Answer a separate sheet of paper to be used as a rough draft for your next test. -List and describe the long and short-term causes of World War I. Be sure to also include how the agreements at the Treaty of Versailles left many of the causes still in place after the war. -Be sure to use specific examples from your World War I Webquest as well as other information provided in class. -Be sure your thesis is supported through the body and conclusion from this packet and other information from this unit. -Be sure the essay has clarity and answers the question.

On Sunday, June 28, 1914, in Sarajevo, Bosnia, an 18-year-old Serbian named Gavrilo Princip, shot and killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Duchess Sophie while they were driving in an open car. Princip belonged to a sercet terror society, called the Black Hand, that wanted to rid Bosnia of Austrian rule and unite it with Serbia. The assassination led to the first World War. This terrible conflict latsed over 4 years, involved over 30 nations, and claimed more than 20,000,000 lives, both miltary and civilian. It cost billions of dollars, destroyed Europe, crumbled empires, and sowed seeds of World War 2. There were also others causes that led up to World War 1. Over time, countries in Europe made mutual defense agreements that would pull them into battle. If one country was attacked, allied countries were bound to defend them. Before World War 1, the following alliances existed: Russia and Serbia, Germany and Austria-Hungary (The Dual Alliance 1879), France and Russia (Franco-Russian Alliance 1891), Britain and France and Belgium, and Japan and Britain. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia (July 28, 1914), Russia got involved to defend Serbia.

Germany seeing Russia mobilizing, declared war on Russia (August 1, 1914). France was then drawn in against Germany and AustriaHungary (August 3, 1914). Germany attacked France through Belgium pulling Britain into war (August 4, 1914). This eventually split the continent into two hostile sides. The Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, later joined by Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire), and the Allies (Great Britain, France, Russia, later joined by Japan, Italy, and the United States). Another factor that increased the rivalry in Europe was imperialism. Before World War 1, Africa and parts of Asia were areas of conflict between the European countries. This was because of the raw materials these areas could provide. The increasing competition and desire for greater empires led to an increase in conflict that helped start World War I. Militarism means that the army and military forces are given a high profile by the government.

The division between European countries and militarism, or a policy of glorying military power and keeping an army prepared for war, led to an arms race between the main countries, another cause of World War I. The armies of both France and Germany had more than doubled between 1870 and 1914, and there was fierce competition between Britain and Germany for mastery of the seas. In the fall of 1914, a series of battles occured in the region of northern France known as the Western Front. During this time a German general, named Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, had drawn up a plan, called the Schlieffen Plan, which called for attacking and defeating France in the west and rushing to fight Russia in the east. By early September, German troops had reached the outskirts of Paris. But, on September 5, the Allies attacked the Germans northeast of Paris, in the valley of Marne River. The Germans retreated after four days of fighting. The Battle of the Marne was an important battle because the French and British forces were able to stop the Schlieffen plan for a quick victory.

However, the German army was not beaten, and its successful retreat ended all hope of a short war. By early 1915, armies on the Western Front began digging long trenches to protect themselves from opposing armies. This became known as trench warfare where soldiers fought each other from trenches. New technology, such as machine guns, poison gas, tanks, and submarines, allowed armies to wipe out each other more quickly. War was also going on in a region known as the Eastern Front, which strecthed along the Russian and German border. In this region, the Russian and the Serbs fought the Germans and Austro-Hungarians. Here, the Russians lost many lives. Near the town of Tannenberg, the Germans defeated the Russians killing over 30,000 Russian soldiers. In September 1914, after defeating the Austrians twice, the Russians were defaeted by the Austrians pushing them out of Austria-Hungary. By 1916, Russia was near collapse.

Russia was less industrialized than the other European countries, but they had a large population which allowed their army to rebuilt its ranks. In Feburary 1915, the Allies made an effort to take the Dardanelles strait, which led to the Ottoman capital Constantinople. Taking over this region, would allow them to defeat the Turks and make a supply line to Russia. This became known as the Gallipoli campaign. The Gallipoli peninsula was attacked by British, French, Australian, and New Zealand troops. By May, the campaign turned bloody. In December, the Allies began to evacuate. They had lost over 250,000 soldiers. Germany’s colonies in Africa and Asia were attacked. The Japanese defeated the Germans in China and captured Germany’s Pacific island colonies.

Four of Germany’s colonies were attacked by France and England who took control of three of the colonies. Soldiers and laborers from India, South Africa, Senegal, Egypt, Algeria, and Indochina joined their French or British rulers in hope that their service would lead to their independence. In 1917, many wars took place on the sea. During the year, the Germans used unrestricted submarine warfare, in which the submarines would sink without warning any ships in the water around Britain. In Janurary 1917, a German submarine sunk the British passenger ship Lusitania which left 1,198 people dead, including 128 United States citizens. Germany claimed the ship had been carrying ammunition, but still recevied strong protests from President Woodrow Wilson. After two more attacks, the Germans agreed to stop attacking neutral and passenger ships. In February 1917, United States officals intercepted a telegram from Arthur Zimmermann, Germany’s foreign secretary, which stated that Germany would help Mexico regain the land it lost to the United States if Mexico would help Germany fight.

This pushed President Wilson, on April 2, 1917, to ask Congress to declare war on Germany. The United States then joined the Allies. When the United States entered the war, the war had already been going on for three years. World War 1 became a total war because all of the countries devoted their resources to the war. The wartime government took control of the economy and told factories what and how much to produce. Nearly every civilian able to work was put to work. Governments began rationing or limiting the number of goods people bought that might be needed at war and using propaganda to put people in favor of the war. Women were also a big help by taking over factories jobs and helping the wounded on the battlefield. In March 1917, Czar Nicholas was forced to step down due the shortages of fuel and food in Russia.

By 1917, about 5.5 million Russian soldiers were either killed, wounded, or a prisoner of war. Russia refused to fight anymore. In November 1917, a Communist leader, named Vladimie llyich Lenin took control and insisted on pulling Russia out of the war. Germany and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which ended the war between them in March 1918. In May 1918, the Germans again reached the Marne River. In July 1918, the Allies and the Germans fought the second battle of Marne. The weakened Central Powers were unable to fight off the Allies. The Bulgarians first surrendered and then the Ottomans. In Germany, the soldiers and the people revolted.

On November 9, 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm II stepped down, and Germany became a republic with socialist Friedrich Elbert as president. A representative of the new German government met with Commander Marshal Foch near Paris. They signed an armistice or an agreement to stop fighting. On November 11, the Great War came to an end. World War 1 left the nations of Europe devastated. France and England had large debts. Germany, near economic collapse, was told to pay reparations that it could not pay. For hope the Germans turned to a man, named Adolf Hitler, that promised to avenge Germany’s defeat. This would soon lead to another bloody war in the years to come.