Ethnic Identity sample essay

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Introduction Many studies on the academic achievements of Mangyans prove to be so beneficial to many enthusiasts concerned with indigenous people’s development. A critical look on the levels of school attitudes and self–esteem of Buhid Mangyan pupils in Mirayan, Buong Lupa and Pakpaklawin Elementary Schools serves as a springboard in drawing deeper implication how these potential variables actually impact on their academic performance as priority learners in the school.

Based on the actual observation of the researcher, the increasing number of Buhid Mangyan enrollees in the schools for the last five years positively indicates their improved appreciation of formal education and trainings as a capital means to enrich their social, economic and cultural conditions. Given all the opportunities to develop their innate potentials, the Buhid Mangyan pupils are able to cope with the learning environment they are in; however, a set of many obvious problems as regards to how they will effectively learn and perform are seen.

Because most of the pupils in Mirayan, Buong Lupa and Pakpaklawin Elementary Schools reside in far-flung communities, most of them usually report to class late, others cannot simply present themselves in the entire whole day of classes, sometimes they prefer to be absent in the afternoon to help out their parents do some house chores for girls. The male Buhid Mangyans on the other hand, go out to the field to plant, take care and feed their animals and perform other labor intensive household activities like cutting wood for cooking, fetching water to drink and others. These economic factors are potential hindrances why the Buhid Mangyan pupils remain left behind compared with their counterparts among Hanunuo and Alangan groups.

The same factors seemingly bear direct impact on the level of attitude of the Buhid Mangyan pupils which they most usually manifest in their behavior towards learning, study habits, preparation of projects readiness to learn and participation in classroom activities. Although they are interested to learn, their ability to respond to the teachers’ instruction appears to be at a dismal level due to hunger, uneasy behavior and timidity. The result indicates that the Buhid Mangyan pupils cannot perform on time their assignments and prepare projects because most of their time is spent for earning a living as their form of support to their parents.

The lingering effects of these patterns of behavior results in the low-level esteem they feel at the midst of frustration and discomfort, which in the process, results in the lack of quality time for sensible socialization with various groups of people, thus, a feeling of isolation from the mainstream community leads to dwindling individual morale, and failure to sustainably exhibit respect, pride, indigenization and love of cultural beliefs and traditions they ought to keep up deeply rooted in themselves. In the same manner, the most obvious effect of the state to which they are in is the relatively low extent of academic achievement of the Buhid Mangyan pupils.

The foregoing statement implies that the experiences of Buhid Mangyan pupils are certainly unique to themselves being in an environment that induces their patterns of actions and behavior. According to Llyod (2007), whatever ethnic affiliation a certain person belongs to, he has a certain set of value system and behavioral patterns being practiced and adopted. The value system of the family and constituent members plays a big factor in the importance given to education, the value of child labor, gender discrimination that prevent girls from attending school to work and discrimination in pay based on sex or type of work of children.

For Connolly (2009), the idea of ethnicity relates to the actual condition of Buhid Mangyan pupils from Mirayan, Buong Lupa and Pakpaklawin Elementary Schools in Gloria District. Ethnicity plays a major role in many people’s lives which sometimes have a positive influence. It helps people identify and understand their needs, while the negative influence includes can be prejudice and discrimination.

The valid connection between academic achievements and level of attitude and esteem of Buhid learners can still be best assessed with the application of creativity, genuine understanding by the 1 / 17 teachers of the holistic identity of the learners. As diversely unique individuals with special traits and experiences, there may also be some good things about them the teachers can value so much as every individual has his own giftedness endowed to him. Problems underlying the mismatch between positive attitude and high esteem and the high level academic achievement of these learners can also be stopped from lingering when teachers continue to perform their sworn in function in the name of long-term development aspired for by the national government.

By discovering and exploring the hidden talents of Buhid Mangyan learners, chances are that their concept of education can improve. In support to this, the Philippines, as a geographically and ethno- linguistically diverse country, has long undertaken initiatives in identifying and educating gifted individuals. The preponderance of psychometric assessments in identifying gifted individuals, however, research investigating indigenous conceptions of giftedness has been scanty (Orosa & Fernandez, 2008).

Given all these scenarios, the researcher derived inspiration from the current situation in which Buhid Mangyans are in, because this study provided hard data on the level of attitude and esteem of the respondents and how these significantly relate to their academic achievements. This undertaking would also shed light to the fact that a needed improvement in treating the Buhid Mangyan is just a necessity to make them feel they are as important as other cultural groups inhabiting the province in general and the Municipality of Gloria in particular. Theoretical Framework This study is strengthened by concepts from educational and psychological theories that relate to learners’ attitude, esteem and academic achievements.

Classical Conditioning Theory Berliner (2007) espoused that Ivan Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Theory describes how stimuli that occur together may come to evoke similar responses. It also describes how rewards shape and maintain behavior. This supports the idea that the Buhid Mangyan pupils can be inspired or motivated to interact with the mainstream community without thinking of their ethnicity.

This can be done by school managers and teachers as well when Buhid Mangyan pupils get the equal amount of recognition from these people, which will insulate them to exhibit positive traits and behavior towards learning and achieving academically. Capitalizing on their good attitude and esteem as individuals, Buhid Mangyan pupils can be given a chance to discover their strengths and contribution to individual development through showing responsibility, independence and love of work. Attribution and Psychosocial Theories Lilienfeld et al. (2010) state that the Attribution Theory proposed by Fritz Heider, describes the role of motivation in a person’s success or failure in school situations.

Success on a test, for instance, could be attributed to luck or hard work; the theory predicts the behavior of students depending on their responses. The theory of the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget that intellectual ability is qualitatively different at different ages and that children need interaction with the environment to gain intellectual competency has influenced all of education and psychology.

This new concept of intelligence affected the design of learning environments for young children and the development of mathematics and science programs. The various concepts discussed in the theories mentioned above relate to the present study because dealing with the behavior of the Buhid Mangyan pupils may require a strict consideration of their attributes based on their cultural integration with the same or other groups of Mangyan who find comfort and convenience without inhibitions due to their commonalities and mutual understanding.

However, teachers from the selected elementary school at Gloria District with Buhid Mangyan pupils can help themselves predict what patterns of behavior or attitude may be manifested by the pupils depending on how their unique attributes are regarded with a humanistic touch. The amount of extraordinary concern and care shown by school officials and teachers towards Buhid Mangyans can spur an increased level of esteem among them.

This will eventually 2 / 17 result in the development of trust among pupils and a sense of fulfillment despite their cultural orientation. Theory of Behaviorism As cited by Kohlberg (2010), the Theory of Behaviorism developed by B. F. Skinner in 1958 is anchored on three assumptions of learning. First, learning is manifested by a change in behavior. Second, the environment shapes behavior. And third, the principles of contiguity (how close in time two events must be for a bond to be formed) and reinforcement (any means of increasing the likelihood that an event will be repeated) are central to explaining the learning.

For behaviorism, learning is the acquisition of new behavior through conditioning. The first conditioning is classical conditioning which describes that the behavior becomes a reflex response to stimulus while the other is the operant conditioning where there is reinforcement of the behavior by a reward or a punishment. The precepts of the theory have binding principles in the current study’s inclusion of attitude and esteem of Buhid Mangyans in relation to their academic achievements.

This implies that there is an expected positive change in the behavior of Buhid Mangyan pupils once they feel they are motivated and highly esteemed leading to quality learning, which can be manifested by their high academic achievements. Because of the stimulating environment created collegially by the school community including their parents and themselves, they are also able to the positive effects of their environment to productive learning.

In essence, the principles of contiguity (how close in time two events must be for a bond to be formed) and reinforcement (any means of increasing the likelihood that an event will be repeated) are central to explaining the learning, the Buhid Mangyan pupils can likewise appreciate that interconnected ideas they learn can lead to the fulfillment of their individual learning goals to get higher grades in the subject areas discussed. All the discussed theories are helpful sources of theoretical precepts which may help the researcher justify the probable relationships between the paired independent and dependent variables under study.

Conceptual Framework Independent VariablesDependent Variable School Attitude Attachment Involvement Commitment Beliefs in School Rules Ethnic Identity Cultural Identity Involvement in Traditional Activities Involvement in traditional Spirituality Self-Esteem Output Proposed Program/Activities to Improve Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem and School Attitude of Grade V Buhid Mangyan Pupils in Gloria District 3 / 17 Figure1.

Conceptual Framework of the Study Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study. The independent variables are ethnic identity expressed in terms of cultural identification, involvement in traditional Buhid activities, traditional spirituality; and self-esteem; the dependent variable is the school attitude of students in terms of attachment, involvement, commitment, and beliefs in school rules.

The lines with the arrow from the two independent variables going to the dependent variable show the hypothesized relationship between the these variables. The two-tailed arrow connecting the independent variables, ethnic identity and self-esteem shows the perceived relationship between these variables. Whereas, the two broken lines from the independent and dependent variables pointing downward lead to the proposed plan that may strengthen or sustain the ethnic identity, self-esteem, and school attitude of Buhid Mangyans. Statement of the Problem This study focused on ethnic identity, self-esteem and school attitudes of Buhid Mangyan pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: What aspects of ethnic identity are practiced by the Buhid Mangyan pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District, Oriental Mindoro? What is the level of self-esteem of the Buhid Mangyan pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District, Oriental Mindoro? What is the level of school attitude of the Buhid Mangyan pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District Gloria, Oriental Mindoro?

Is there a significant relationship between ethnic identity and school attitude of the Buhid Mangyan pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District, Oriental Mindoro? Is there a significant relationship between self-esteem and school attitude of Buhid Mangyan pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District, Oriental Mindoro? Is there a significant relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem of the Buhid Mangyan Pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District? What programs/activities can be undertaken by the schools to sustain/strengthen ethnic identity and self-esteem to improve the school attitudes of the Buhid Mangyan pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District, Oriental Mindoro?

Hypotheses The study proposes the following hypotheses: There is a significant relationship between ethnic identity and school attitudes of the Buhid Mangyan pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District, Oriental Mindoro. There is a significant relationship between self-esteem and school attitudes of the Buhid Mangyan pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District, Oriental Mindoro. There is a significant relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem of the Buhid Mangyan pupils in the selected elementary schools at Gloria District, Oriental Mindoro.

Significance of the Study This study may be of great contribution to different groups of people who are openly engaged in the educative development of pupils in the Department of Education (DepEd) and its stakeholders. Buhid Mangyan pupils may be able to appreciate this study as a source of credible information on how their school attitude, self-esteem and school attachment help them feel as proud members of a Mangyan ethnic group. The information to be gathered may also enable them to relate these factors to their academic achievement.

Thus, this study may serve as an eye-opener to them insofar as their cultural authenticity, self-esteem as individual member of a Mangyan community would be given just consideration through an academic and professional study. Being the principal beneficiaries of this study, they may likewise be given the means to analyze how their personal attributes determine their academic standing, from which they could identify their most liked and 4 / 17 least liked subject area/s as herein enumerated. Buhid Mangyan parents may come across with assessment results pertaining to the effects of their children’s attitude and self-esteem on their academic performance.

As the children’s immediate environment at home, they may assess the intensity of the need for their children to be provided with parental support, particularly moral and spiritual guidance to make them obedient, compliant and value-laden members of society. The parents may be able to increase the amount and quality of time necessary for the pupils to learn to an optimum level. Teachers of the Buhid Mangyan pupils may be given sound reference to reinforce the psycho-social and analytical competence in instruction to make their classrooms for the pupils conducive, welcoming and adhere to the principle of cultural diversity and ethnicity.

The findings of this study may encourage them to undertake necessary measures to further increase the potential of Buhid Mangyan pupils to show positive attitude relative to learning behavior, study habits, preparation of projects, readiness to learn and participation in classroom activities. The idea of quality instruction, anchored on indigenization may be developed in the teachers because this study may enable them to gain deeper understanding of how the level of esteem of the Buhid Mangyan pupils contributes to socialization, exhibition of respect, pride, practice of indigenization and love of cultural beliefs and traditions.

The results on the assessed academic achievement of pupils measured by the grade they obtain in different subjects may help them determine how well their instruction and the Buhid pupils’ attitude and esteem serve as determinants of performance. The school principals of the selected public elementary schools with indigenous people-pupils may be able to use the recommendations of the researcher to improve the state of instruction among Buhid Mangyan pupils at all levels.

This is because the information of the respondents’ attitude and esteem may be used as his/her basis in preparing a more indigenized and inclusive academic programs designed to enrich their overall potentials as learners. The usefulness of class observation may also be justified by the results of this study because as school administrators they could provide their teachers with inputs on how to deal effectively with the learning needs of Buhid learners. Mangyan historians and writers may make use of the entire study as supplemental data to be included in write-ups on Buhid pupils’ behavior, esteem and their appreciation of formal educational trainings to enhance their socio-economic status.

The findings, conclusions and recommendations of this study may be considered as documents for their deeper treatment of the cultural background on Buhid Mangyans who now experience development through education, which can be compared with other ethnic groups of Mangyans. Officials of the Office for the Southern Cultural Communities (OSCC) and other private non- government organizations like the Mangyan Mission, National Indigenous People’s Coalition (NIPC) may regard this study very useful.

They may be supplied with factual information on the financial, material and other relevant educational needs of the tribal group, which they could consider as instrumental in the fulfillment of national government’s thrust to improve the plight of indigenous peoples in the province of Oriental Mindoro. Future researchers may also put prime value on this study as their back up local study should they perform a professional study dealing on Mangyan attitudes, esteem and academic performance. The whole study may support their claim that educational development among Mangyans continues to be observable, thus deeper analysis and interpretation of related variables and indicators can be delved. Scope and Delimitation of the Study.

The pupils’ ethnic identity, self-esteem and school attitude as an expression of cultural identity and their school attachment as independent and dependent variables in this study were assessed by the researcher. These were inter-paired to determine each significantly related to one another. After the analysis and interpretation of the variables and their indicators, the researcher came up with a plan to improve the school attitude and self-esteem of the Buhid Mangyan pupils for their cultural 5 / 17 development. This study is limited to the Buhid Mangyan pupils from Mirayan, Buong Lupa and Pakpaklawin.

Elementary Schools. The Buhid Mangyan pupils will be chosen base on the fact that the selected elementary schools has the biggest population of Buhid Mangyan pupils. Definition of Terms The researcher defined all the terms used in this study to enable its readers to gain deeper understanding of what this study is all about. Attachment refers to the developed intimacy of Buhid pupils with the school officials, teachers and all members of the school organization which enable them to grow as individuals. Belief in school rules are the assessed perceptions of the Buhid Mangyan on the applicability of school policies, how these are implemented and how pupils comply with.

Buhid Mangyans refer to one of the eight recognized ethnic groups of Mangyans, mostly residing in the upland communities of Gloria in Oriental Mindoro. Commitment determines the school attachment of Buhid Mangyan pupils in which they show their willingness to perform their academic tasks. Cultural identification refers to the common cultural practices recognized by Hanunuo Mangyans that make them distinct from the other ethnic groups in Mindoro.

Ethnic identity pertains to how individuals interpret and understand their ethnicity and, specifically, the degree to which they identify with their ethnic group (Phinney, 1996). Involvement means the active participation of the Buhid Mangyan pupils in classroom, academic and non- academic activities of the school for their holistic development. School Attitude and Self-Esteem Plan refer to the output of the researcher which guides the implementation of relevant cultural development programs anchored on school attitude, self-esteem and school attachment. School attachment of Grade V Buhid Mangyan Pupils describes the respondents as to their commitment, attachment, involvement and belief in school rules.

School attitude refers to the statement of cultural identity of the Buhid Mangyan pupils in Gloria District. Self-esteem of the Buhid Mangyan pupils pertains to the level of morale and pride felt by the Buhid Mangyan pupils as member of the said ethnic group. Traditional activities refer to social activities reflecting aspects of culture in which Buhid Mangyans involved themselves in. Traditional spirituality refers to the practice of religious activities of the Buhid Mangyans. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.

This chapter presents all the related literature and studies which support the discussion of the researcher on ethnic identity, level of self-esteem and school attitude of Buhid Mangyan pupis in Mirayan, Buong Lupa and Pakpaklawin Elementary Schools in Gloria District. Ethnic Identity Identity development is critical for individuals because it is during this process that they discover who they are and who they hope to become. A fundamental social environment that influences the development of a self-identity is ethnic group membership (Markstrom-Adams, 1992).

Ethnic identity pertains to how individuals interpret and understand their ethnicity and, specifically, the degree to which they identify with their ethnic group (Phinney, 1996). The impact of ethnic identity is especially relevant in heterogeneous societies, such as the United States, where minority groups and a dominant social group coexist (Rosenthal, 1987). From the above cited literature, it was found out that ethnic identity has relationships with psychological well-being, and it has effects on the contextual factors in adolescents’ lives that may influence or interact with their ethnic identity development.

Contextual factors such as family, school, and community are linked with ethnic identity because it is within these contexts that adolescents’ lives are embedded (Bronfenbrenner, 1989; Garcia Coll et al. , 1996). According to Erikson’s (1968) identity formation perspective, it is through exploration of options (sometimes experienced through 6 / 17 crises) and firm commitments to ideologies and an occupation that individuals come to achieve a secure identity.

Marcia (1980) furthered Erikson’s ideas by developing four identity statuses with which to operationalize Erikson’s theoretical notions. Individuals are classified into the statuses based on the presence or absence of a decision-making period (i. e. , exploration) and the extent of their commitment in the domains of occupation, ideologies, and interpersonal values (Marcia, 1994). Phinney further extended these ideas by examining Marcia’s statuses in relation to ethnic identity development. According to Phinney (1990), ethnic identity development is a process that takes place.

The above-mentioned reviews on the concepts of ethnic identity find fitness in this study because they stress the idea that ethnic identity development is linked with factors such as family, school, and community because it is within these contexts that adolescents’ lives are embedded. Self-Esteem Self-Esteem is literally defined by how much value people place on themselves. It is the evaluative component of self-knowledge. High self-esteem refers to a highly favorable global evaluation of the self. Low self-esteem, by definition, refers to unfavorable definition of the self. Self –esteem does not carry any definitional requirement of accuracy whatsoever.

Thus, high self-esteem may refer to an accurate, justified, balanced appreciation of ones’ worth and one’s successes and competencies, but it can also refers to an inflated, arrogant, grandiose, unwarranted sense of conceited superiority over others. By the same token, low self-esteem can be either an accurate, well-founded understanding of one’s shortcoming as a person or a distorted, even pathological sense of insecurity and inferiority. School Attitude One aspect of school attitude that has been identified is school spirit. A component of school spirit which has particular relevance to adolescence is the belief that one’s school is an adequate reflection of who they are (Coker & Borders, 1996).

Another way to understand the adolescence strong need to identify with school is through Finn’s (1989) identification participation model. Finn argues that that being able to identify with school is critical for adolescents’ school attitude and well-being. Jenkins’s (1997) work with the school bond demonstrates measures of involvement in extracurricular activities including sports, clubs, and special school events is a strong predictor of school attitude. In keeping with Finn’s (1989) Identification-Participation model, school bonds represents involvement and engagement that also includes non-academic, school related activities.

Involvement in Traditional Activities and SpiritualityPow-wows are community social gatherings that include traditional activities such as dance and song. It is also a celebration of tribal custom and cultural connectedness. Pow-wows begin by way of a grand entry with all dancers participating in honor of the event. A master of ceremony is the voice of the pow-wow to the singers, dancers, drums rotation, and informs the public in general. Different styles of dancing with traditional regalia are accompanied by drums and native songs. Traditional and contemporary foods are provided or sold along with the event.

(Wright et al. 2001). The sweat lodge ceremony is traditional purification ceremony that incorporates traditional singing, prayer, counseling, and sharing similar to a talking circle. It takes place in an enclosed space (lodge) with heated rocks, heat, and steam (Mails, 1978). Tribes may vary to integrate their own customs, philosophies and traditional use of medicines during facilitation of the ceremony (Wright et al. 2011). Drumming groups are accompanied by native singing of traditional songs and intertwined with dancers at pow-wows of other cultural based tribal event.

Roundhouse is a large ceremonial house where America Indian people gather together for ceremonial dances, singing and prayer (Bibby, 1993). The Buhid Mangyans The Philippines has its vowed responsibility to provide accessible and quality education to all children. Here, all types of learners, regardless of their cultural groups and orientations are 7 / 17 included, even the Buhid Mangyans. Perpertua (2009) stated that schools do not use Moro languages as mediums of instruction to any significant extent nor do most of the civil service and governmental positions require fluency in one of these languages, though they do demand fluency in Filipino.

This creates a very real obstacle to the full participation of the Moro Muslims in the country’s public and political life, and they remain vastly under-represented in categories of educational attainment and in civil service employment and political representation. Not only ordinary Filipinos should be provided by the state with opportunities to develop, but also and most important, those who belong to the marginalized sectors of society which include the indigenous peoples (IPs) whose condition seems so irreparable.

Postma (1967), retrieved from http://www. on December 22, 2013, states that the Buhids are known as pot makers. Other Mangyan tribes, like the Alangan and Hanunuo, used to buy their cooking pots from the Buhids. The word Buhid literally means “mountain dwellers”. As stated by Litis (1989), retrieved from Mangyan website on December 22,2013, Buhid women wear woven black and white brassiers called linagmon and a black and white skirt called abol. Unmarried women wear body ornaments such as a braided nito belt (lufas), blue thread earrings, beaded headband (sangbaw), beaded bracelet (uksong), and beaded long necklace (siwayang or ugot).

The men wear g-strings. To enhance body beauty, the men wear ornaments like a long beaded necklace, tight choker (ugot) and beaded bracelet (uksong). Both sexes use an accessory bag called bay-ong for personal things like comb and knife. Together with the Hanunuo, the Buhids in some areas possess a pre-Spanish syllabic writing system. The Buhid Mangyans live in the municipalities of Roxas, Bansud, Bongabong and some parts of Gloria and Mansalay in Oriental Mindoro, and in the municipalities of San Jose and Rizal in Occidental Mindoro.

Mahusay (2008) said that financing educational and scholarship programs for Mangyan pupils as part of corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda improves their quality of life. The firm’s CSR program not only involves education but also includes other social development projects such as nutrition, health and sanitation, livelihood, infrastructure and other community- oriented programs. Pestano (2008) said that community relations activities which normally involve many poor Mangyans included in educational grants that help them pursue their dream, enhance behavior and value their culture and heritage. Felipe (2007) defined the ethnography and culture of the Alangan Mangyans in order to determine the extent of peace process and their level of indigenous sustainable development.

The indigenous culture of the Mangyan Alangan was focused on the social, economic, political, and religious practices. The social practices were confined within the family in the “esoken” of the “balaylakoy”. The Mangyan also developed peace- making attitude in order to appease the spirit hovering over them. Failure to do so would mean disaster. They highly agreed on building structured democracy, interdependence, respect for the integrity of culture, respect for human rights and sharing of responsibilities as manifestation of peace process.

Mallari (2007) asserted that Mangyans and other poor but deserving students in Oriental Mindoro receive educational support and take a step toward a brighter future, thanks to the efforts of a mining company that has made it a policy to extend assistance to the impoverished communities where it operates. Not far from the experiences of the Philippines, other countries worldwide recognize the socio-economic significance of formal education and trainings to achieve total human development. Indigenous Knowledge (IK).

Cotter (2011) asserted that indigenous knowledge (IK) is the local knowledge people unique to a culture or society passed from generation to generation through a wide range of other activities that sustain societies in many parts of the world, particularly in formal education. Harper (2011) stated that indigenous peoples have a broad knowledge of how to live sustainably. However, formal education systems disrupt the practical everyday life aspects of indigenous knowledge and ways of learning, replacing them with abstract knowledge and academic ways of 8 / 17 learning. Today, there is a grave risk that much indigenous.