The educational implications of Erikson, Piaget, and Vygotsky are very precise and distinctive. These three articles focus on the application of cognitive, social and psychosocial theories and their implications within an effective classroom. Each individual psychologist puts into practice learning practices that can be executed within a classroom to increase student’s success and achievement. Piaget’s article stresses the educational practices of peer learning, and depicts possible outcomes from this strategy.
Vygotskys article highlights the importance of developing an efficient social climate within the classroom, whereas Erikson draws our attention to teaching children of diverse cultures. Piaget: Implications of Piaget’s Ideas about Peer Learning Peer-learning has great significance in the classroom settings and can be considered imperative in its usage in the classroom. The essential function of peer learning is to sharpen academic skills and manage interactions with classmates (De Lisi, 2002). DeVries stated that student learning is extended when teacher generate an environment of mutual respect in their classrooms.
When mutual respect is established in the classroom peers demonstrate a higher probability to freely exchange ideas that later lead to deeper understandings and positive reception of individual personalities. The article also suggested that peer learning occur in the classroom rather than being extended outside of the classroom. This suggestion is made because of differences in social-moral contexts outside of the classroom; however teacher can require particular individual parts. Piaget suggested that developing knowledge as a relationship between a child’s current cognitive system and the object, task, or problem at hand.
When this relationship is balanced the cognitive system is engaged in its entirety and essential components of the problems are addressed. Balanced problem elements and cognitive system foster deeper levels of understanding and comprehension of problems. When the components in the task and problem is outweighed by the child’s cognitive system the child will most likely become imbalanced in their thinking by develop various individualistic interpretations. In these instances details are often ignored and overlooked, resulting in no change of understanding.
When problem elements dominate the cognitive systems minimal engagement is acquired (De Lisi 2002). An example of an unbalanced developing knowledge is in the instance of two students working on a reading assignment. If the assignment is above one of the student’s ability level there is high likely chance the student will copy off of the student and never comprehend author’s purpose. The article also addresses preconceptions about peer-learning among students personally. Students possess feeling and consciousness about these particular experiences.
Feelings provide motivation for actions, while thoughts draw up the margins of their potential on an assignment. Intentional teachers must fashion clearly designed socially interactive components in peer learning activities to ensure positive experiences. Teachers can amplify the growth of innovative and critical thinkers through calculated peer learning activities. Weather peer-learning occurs in or outside that classroom it can produce many beneficial outcomes. Erikson: Teaching the Immigrant Child Immigrant children are immensely populating our classrooms requiring a change in earlier used strategies.
These strategies are now proven to be obsolete and no longer effective. English languages Learners (ELL) are students who are learning English while speaking other languages including their native tongue (Onchwari, etl 2008). A great amount of this population of students derives from poor families and homes where there is limited education which produces greater obstacles for teachers and students. In the scenarios educators must be sensitive to the students needs and look for ways to foster high self esteem and incorporate their personal cultural beliefs.
According to Erickson’s theory, children progress through eight universal psychosocial stages. Immigrant children battle through the first three stages of Erikson’s theory; trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame, and initiative vs. guilt. As educators create an atmosphere of cultural respect, children develop acceptance which leads to additional confidence in their abilities (Onchwari, etl 2008). Teachers can learn about a child’s culture and teach acceptance, in result immigrant and non immigrant students ill learn cultural differences. Vygotsky: Developing Tools for an effective classroom.
This article focuses on cognitive and social constructivism to produce an effective classroom. Cognitive constructivism is constructed through a personal process, while social constructivism is where ideas are constructed through interaction with teachers and peers. After Piaget describe his theories on cognitive constructivism Lev Vygotstky later followed these theories with his belief in social interactions and its fundamental role in learning.
Vygotsky’s main theory is the zone of proximal development or ZPD. This is the part that controls how a child learns. ZPD is the area where learning occurs when a child is assisted in a concept that is being expressed in the classroom. Research proves consistently that learning is smooth when it occurs within this zone and others are involved (Vygostky, 1962) ZPD focuses on the different psychological functions that emerge as a child grows and occurs when a child is helped in learning a concept in the classroom (Vygotsky, 1962).
Once the skill has been mastered, the child’s ZPD increases. As a result of this, the child is able to do more activities independently and with less teacher guidance. Vygotsky’s theory also includes the concept of scaffolding. Scaffolding takes place during the ZPD stage to help the child understand skills taught by the teacher. The teacher works closely with the student to solve problems and complete tasks After reading these articles I was able to grasp a better understanding of the positive impacts these theories have on student learning and achievement.
Each theorist are diverse in their approach but their research merits great positive outcomes. All three theories incorporate diversity, communication, engagement, language, and inquiry base learning. Jesus in the New Testament established a new command that stated we are to love our neighbors as ourselves. Teachers must keep in the forefront of their minds that located inside of each student is a heart; a heart that has different motivations, beliefs, values, goals and feelings. That same heart is to be love and cultivated because each one is an individual.