Commercial Cooking NC 2 sample essay

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A. Grains { cerials}— rice, corn, wheat. sorghum,barley,rye/millet B. Pulses— beans, peas, lentils C. Fruits 1. Tropical—banana,pineapple, mango,papaya,avocado,breadfruit 2. Sub-Tropical— citrus, olives 3. Deciduous Fruits—apple, grapes, pear 4. Stone fruits—peach,cherry,apricot 5. Berries—-strawberry, blueberries D. Melons and Squashes—cantaloupe, watermelon,squash E. Vegetables 1. Leaf and stem—- cabbage, pechay, kangkong, lettuce, celery 2. Root—- carrot, radish 3. Seeds—green peas, mongo, green beans 4. Fruits— tomato,egg plant,cucumber 5.

Flowers— cauliflowers,banana blossom, squash flower,broccoli F. Tubers— potatoes. sweet potaoes, cassava, yam G. Nuts—- Cashew,almond, peanut,{technically is a legume} walnut, pili nut pictachio H. Fungi— mushrooms, taingang daga J/ Oilseeds—- coconut, palm oil, soybeans, peanut, olive, sesame K. Seaweed— agar,carrageenan , lato. Kulot III. ANIMAL PRODUCTS 1. Milk—cow, carabao,goat, sheep, camel, elephant 2. Meat and Entrails Domesticated— beef and veal, pork, mutton, goat rabbit, dodg. Horse,game, venison-deer, 3.

Poultry— chicken, turkey ducks, geese, quail, 4. Eggs— chicken, duck, turtle 5. Fish—(flesh, roe, liver) bangus, sardine, tune, mackerel,shark, carp, tilapis, catfish 6. Shellfish—- 1. Crustaceans— crab, lobster, shrimps, prawns 2. Molluscean—- oyster, clam scallop, squid, cuttlefish, octopus, snails IV. FOOD AND HEALTH Foods are sources of substances called nutrients that rae responsible for the physiological roles of food to give energy, build and repair tissues and regulate body processes. The main group of nutrients are water, proteins, fats and carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. V. FOOD SAFETY 1.

Definition The problem of food sanitation and ultimately of food safety is not confined to food processing plants and public eating places only but include our very own homes and kitchen as well. To minimize or prevent the occurrence of food poisoning on infection, we must of aware of the characteristics of the different kinds of food poisoning and infections as well as the prevention and curative measures for each kind. 2. Methods of preventing Food Poisoning A. MICROBIOLOGICAL ORIGIN Microbial poisoning is the most common cause of food poisoning. Microorganisms readily grow in foods, since conditions necessary for their growth are favored.

The following consequences of microbial growth are readily observable in foods. 1. Food spoilage 2. Food borne disease 3. Altered characteristics of food as in fermentation. B. BIOCHEMICAL ORIGIN Some plants and animals including marine animals have been found to contain some constituents which are toxic to man. Among plants, those found to have the most toxic constituents are those high in protein particularly the legume and nut group. C. CHEMICAL POISONING Chemicals may cause untoward reactions when taken in unusual amounts or used for purposes for which they were not intended.

Pesticides are meant to control agricultural damage, for example but through carelessness, may find their way to the food. To prevent accidental contamination of this nature, chemicals and other poisonous items should be properly identified. D. PHYSICAL HAZARDS IN FOOD Physical hazards are objects that may be present in foods which could cause injury. Strictly speaking, these may not be classified as food poisoning but it is certainly as important consideration in food safety. Examples of physical hazards in food are the following…. Bone splinters, stones, larger plastics pieces, twigs, broken glass, metal strips, buttons .

These items may be found in food because of carelessness in food handling. Stones are common physical contaminants in rice while staple wire are commonly found in bread. D. PERSONAL HYGIENE PRACTICE The food handler in the home kitchen is capable of spreading infections to as many people as the proverbial ”Typhoid Mary” did during her time. It is important for each person handling food to have practice personal hygiene. 1. Clean hands and nails before handling foods. 2. Wear clean clothes 3. Use hairnets to avoid hair going to the food. 4. Avoid handling food when you have a cold or an infectious wound or disease.

5. When handling food, remove rings or bracelets that can be possible sources of contaminations of food. 6. plastics gloves should only be used when hands are already thouroughly cleaned. 7. Smoking, eating, and drinking should also be prevented while preparing food, as this practice mey lead into bacterial contaminations. 8. Above all personal habits should be practiced wherever you are. –bathe daily — never sneeze nor cough near food –never touch your hair or any part of your body while handling food. E. PROPER FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES 1. Select food properly.

Buy meat, fish, pork, fruits, and vegetables from reliable dealer. 2. be careful in eating foods that are fresh. Wash fruits and vegetables well before eating them. 3. Wash hands with soap and water before handling food especially after visiting the toilet, handling dust pans, coming from streets or even using a handkerchief. 4. Canned goods mau contain contaminated foods. Do not accept cans if they exhibit the following characteristics. –leakage –rust –dents 5. In storing foods, always follow FIFO “first in first out”. 6. Pesticides and Chemicals should be locked in a cabinet.

7. Work in a clean place.keep work surfaces clean. 8. Use only clean utensils. 9. make it a habit to use tasting spoon for sampling food. Do not return the spoon to the food after it has been to the mouth. 10. Freeze to retard the growth and enzyme action for a longer period. 11. Serve and store food in clean container. D. PROPER DISWASHING TECHNIQUES Washing dishes is a routinary task, quite necessary for our day to day living. It would be worthwhile therefore to learn the most efficient, effective and sanitary manner of dishwashing. 1. Remove large scraps with a rubber scraper 2. Rinse or soak pans and other utensil as used.

Soak those with sugar, syrup, or fats in hot water and those with cooked or uncooked starches or proteins in cold water. 3. Stocks the dishes in the proper order namely glass wares first, then silverware next, then china wares, utensils last. Stock them to the right of the sink so that progresses from right to left. 4. Wash the glassware first. 5. Wash the silver wares. 6. Wash the china wares 7. Wash the utensils last. VI. FOOD PREPARATION TERMS AND COOKING TERMS 1. BAKE—to cook in an oven or oven type appliance. 2. BASTE—To moisten the surface of meat or other foods while roasting to add flavor and to prevent drying of the surface.

3. BEAT—to make a mixture smooth or to introduce air in a mixture by using a brisk, regular lifting motion. 4. BLANCH—(precook) tp preheat in boiling water or steam. 5. BLEND—to mix thouroughly two or more ingredients. 6. BOIL—to cook in water or liquid mostly water in which bubbles rise continually and break on the surface. 7. BRAISE—to cook slowly in a covered Utensils in a small amount of liquid or in steam. 8. BREAD—to coat with bread crumbs, 9. CARAMELIZE—o heat sugar or foods containing sugar until a brown color and characteristics flavor develop due to a slight burning of sugar. 10.

CHOP—to cut into small pieces with a sharp tool or a knife. 11. DICE—to cut into cubes. 12. DREDGE—to sprinkle or coat with flour or other fine substances. 13. FLAKE—to separate layers of food like cooked chicken flesh. 14. FRY—to cook in fat 15. GARNISH—to decorate dishes with small portions of colorful foods like celery, parsley, tomatoes. 16. GRATE—to shred by rubbing the food against rough or slightly perforated surface. 17. GRILL—to cook In a grid iron or similar utensils, over a heat source. 18. GRIND—to reduce to fine particles by cutting or crushing. 19. KNEAD—to manipulate a mixture such as a dough with pressing motion accompanied by folding and stretching.

20. MARINATE—to soak food in a seasoned liquid 21. MELT—to liquefy by heat in cheese or to dissolve in a solvent such as sugar in water. 22. MINCE— to cut or chop into very small pieces. 23. MIX—to combine ingredients in any way to effect even distribution. 24. PAN FRY—to cook in small amount of fat 25. PARE—to cut off outside covering 26. PEEL– to strip off the outside covering. 27. SAUTE—to brown or cook in small amount of fat. 28. SHRED—to ccut or tear food in long narrow pieces.. 29. STEAM—to cook in steam with or without pressure. 30.

WHIP— to beat rapidly to produce expansion due to incorporation of air as applied to cream, eggs. VII.. KITCHEN TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT I.. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT USEFUL IN THE PREPRATION OF FOOD BEFORE COOKING A. Measuring and weighing Utensils 1. measuring cups a. dry ingredients b. Liquid ingredients 2. measuring quart 3. measuring spoons 4. dietetic scales B. Cutlery and Aids for Chopping, Paring,Slicing,Pounding 1. Can opener 2. Chopper 3. Corer 4. Cutting board 5. Food mill 6. Grater and shredder 7. Grinder 8. Ice pick 9. Juicer 10. Kitchen knife 11. Kitchen sharpener 12. Kitchen shears 13. Mortar and pestle.

14. Potato peeler 15. Utility plates, bowls and tray. C. Tools for Mixing, Blending, Straining, and Rolling 1. Blender 2. Colander 3. Egg beater 4. Flour sifter 5. Mixer,(electric) 6. Rolling pin 7. Rubber scraper 8. Slotted spoons 9. Turner 10. Utility plates II. EQUIPMENT FOR SURFACE OR TOP OF STOVE COOKING AND FOR BAKING A. Surface or Top Cooking 1. Bread toaster 2. Coffee maker 3. Frying pan 4. Griddle 5. Kitchen tongs 6. Pressure cooker 7. Sauce pans 8. Steamer 9. Waffle iron B. Baking Utensils 1. Baking pans 2. Cake cooler VIII.. FRUITS AND VEGETABLE CARVING IX. FLOUR AND FLOUR MIXTURES i 1. DEFINATION.

FLOURS are powdered products made from milling or grinding cereal grains, root crops, legumes and other starchy foods. , MARKET FORMS OF WHEAT FLOURS 1. Whole Wheat flour. also called graham or entire wheat flour, this contains the components of wheat kernel in its original proportion. 2. Bread Flour. This is milled from hard wheat and blends. It is fairly high in its protein content which ranges from 12 to 14% other name strong flour 3. All purpose Flour. it is used for practically all cooking purposes . Its characteristics are intermediate between bread and cake flour.

4. Cake Flour. This is known as soft flour it is made from soft wheat.its higher starch and lower gluten content,cake flour is suitable for delicate textured cakes. Flour mixtures are blends of liquid and flour with other ingredients in certain amounts intended for a specific product. Batters are flour mixtures that can be poured in a steady stream called pour batters or in heavy drops.. referred to as drop batters. Dough are viscous flout mixtures that can be handled because the amount of flour per cup of liquid is 50 to 100 % more than what is use for the batter. Soft Doughs are still sticky to the touch while stiff doughs are smooth and can be rolled and cut easily.

CHIFFON CAKE Ingredients: 2 1/2 cup cake flour 1T baking powder 1t salt ? cup refined sugar 7 egg yolk ? cup oil ? cup water 8 pcs egg whites ? t cream of tartar ? cup refined sugar BOILED ICING 4 egg whites 1 t cream of tartar 2 cups of sugar 1 t vanilla PROCEDURE 1. Pre heat oven 2. Line pan with wax paper 3. Sift flour measure and sift again together with baking powder,salt and sugar 4. Make a well at the center. add yolk oil, and water and vanilla 5. Mix well(using wire whisk, wooden spoon or electric mixer) set aside 6. In another bowl, beat egg whites with cream of tartar until foamy.gradually add sugar, continue beating till stiff 7.

Cut and fold batter into meringue 8. Pour into prepared pan 9. Bake at 350 F for 30-45 minutes or until done 10. Allow to cool CARROT CAKE Ingredients 4 cups all purpose flour 1 cup butter 2 ? cup sugar 6 Eggs 2 T baking powder ? tsp salt 1 t vanilla 1 cup milk 1 ? cup grated carrots PROCEDURE 1. Measure sifted dry ingredients and mix together 2. Cream butter. add sugar gradually and continue creaming 3. Add eggs and vanilla 4. Add dry ingredients alternately with milk into the egg mixture until well blended 5. Add grated carrots 6.

Bake on a prepared pan. X.. FISH AND FISH PRODUCTS INTRODUCTION The term fish encompasses a wide assortment of aquatic animals. Generally, fish refer to vertebrate or finfish. On the basis of anatomical differences another class are shell fish which have instead of a skeleton or vertebrae, a hard shell on the outside of the soft tissues They crustaceans and mollusks. crustaceans like crabs, lobster and shrimps are encased in a chitinous armour which being segmented gives the creature power of loco motion. Most mollusk are bivalves abalone, clams, mussels and oyster. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF FISH.

Fish is an excellent source of protein, ant is interchangeable with meat in both quantity and quality. Fish rich in fat, provides energy and is easy to digest. Marine fish are a good source of iodine and phosphorous but low in iron and in calcium. Canned fish which undergoes pressure processing at 15 lbs Steam pressure contain an appreciable amount of calcium because the bones are rendered edible. MARKET FORM OF FISH 1. Live fish 2. whole or round fish 3. Drawn fish— whole fish with entrails removed. 4. Dressed fish—has bees scaled and eviscerated. 5. Fillets—are two meaty sides of the fish cut from the backbone.

6. Deboned— 7. Steaks 8. sticks 9. flaked FISH COOKERY 1. Dry heat Cookery a. Broiling o ihaw b. Baking c. Frying d. Toasting 2. Moist heat Cookery a. paksisw na isda b. sinigang na isda c. sinaing o pangat (cook in claypot) SHORT QUIZ 1. Why does fish cook faster than beef or pork? STIR FRIED SQUID Ingredients: 250 grams cleaned and skinned, cut into desired size 1 clove garlic minced 1 t onion minced 2-3 T oyster sauce Salt and pepper to taste Chopped spring onion for toppings 1T coking oil PROCEDURE; 1. Heat oil in pan, saute garlic ,onion until slightly brown.

Ad the squid and cooked until pale color. 2. Add the oyster sauce And cook for another 2-3 mins. Season with salt and pepper 2. Remove squid on the pan and place in a appetizer plate. Top stir fried squid with chopped onions. XI.. MEAT I. DEFINATION Meat refers to the muscles of animals used as food. it includes the glands and organs of these animals such as tongue,liver, heart,kidney. The three animals commonly domesticated for meat in most countries of the world are the ox for veal, and beef, sheep for lamb and mutton and pig for pork.

Veal is the meat from calf while beef is the meat from older ox.lamb is meat from young sheep while mutton is meat from the older animal. II.. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF MEAT Lean meat is an important source of high quality protein which amounts on the average to 18% of the meat. Meat can be regarded as an important source of vitamins B1 and B2 pork exhibiting much higher percentage of B1 than other meat. It is also an excellent source of iron and phosphorous. Liver is especially rich in iron and is concentrated source of Vitamin A. MARKET FORMS OF MEAT 1. FRESH MEAT… this meat immediately after slaughter without undergoing chilling.

2. CHILLED MEAT….is meat that has been cooled to a temperature just above freezing within 24 hours after slaughter 3. FROZEN MEAT.. are meat cuts frozen to an internal temperature of -2*C. 4. CURED MEAT… are meat products that has been treated with a curing agent. 5. PROCESSED MEAT…canned and frozen products such as corned beef and luncheon meat adobo and other local food preparations are quite popular. MEAT COOKERY Meat is cooked for various reasons. 1. To improve its palatability quality 2. To increase tenderness 3. For sanitary purposes. SHORT QUIZ 1. Differentiate between beef and lamb.

PAN GRILLED BEEF TENDERLOIN Ingredients: 100 grams beef terderloin Salt and pepper 1 T vegetable oil PROCEDURE; 1. Season beef with salt and pepper 2. Brush with oil and pan grill depending on the donenesss required 3. Prepare plate for grilled beef. 4. Present XII.. POULTRY I. DEFINITION Poultry refers to the several kinds f fowl that are used as food and term includes chicken, turkey, duck, pigeon, quails. This are usually domesticated birds raised mainly for meat and eggs. II. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF POULTRY Poultry like fish and red meat, contains an abundance of high quality of proteins.

The minerals and vitamins content of poultry is similar to that of fish and red meat. III.. POULTRY COOKERY Poultry is cooked to improve its palatability and tenderness and to destroy any bacteria or parasites present. Poultry should always be cooked thoroughly, because poultry is naturally contaminated with salmonella bacteria,one of the major causes of food borne illness. 1. Moist heat cooker 2. Dry heat cookery BREADED CHICKEN( fillet, lollipop and deboned) Ingredients: 1 pc breast fillet 2 pcs wings 1 pc deboned leg Calamansi White pepper Salt Flour Egg wash(eggyolk and water or milk) Bread crumbs Cooking oil.

PROCEDURE; 1. Add calamansi in breast fillet, then season with salt and pepper. 2. Marinate for 5 mins. 3. Dredge the marinated breast fillet onto the flour using your left hand. 4. Dip the flavored breast fillet onto prepared egg wash using your right hand. 5. Finally, roll the dipped breast onto the bread crumbs again using your left hand. 6. Chill the breaded chicken for 15 mins. 7. Cook the chilled breaded chicken until well done. NOTE:, deep frying for lollipop, deboned legs Pan frying for breast fillet XIII.. EGGS I. INTRODUCTION Eggs are poultry products from chicken, duck and quail that are eaten as food.

Chicken eggs in the most widely consumed type of egg in the world while duck in the next popular. II. COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF EGG Eggs are important protein foods comparable to red meats, fish and poultry. Fresh eggs contain practically all the vitamins except ascorbic acid. (vitamin C). They are also important sources of iron, phosphorous and trace minerals. The yolk is a particularly important and excellent source of iron and riboflavin and contributes and Vitamin A to the diet. The Vitamin A content depends on the feed of the laying hen and is not related to the yolk color intensity.

Among food, egg yolk is the richest source of cholesterol, a substance implicated in heart disease. Eggs provide a well balanced source of nutrients. They may be prepared in various interesting ways providing attractive and highly acceptable meals as well as snacks of comparatively low calorie count. III. EGG SAFETY AND QUALITY STORAGE *** refrigerate at 45*F or below *** Store away from strong odors *** Rotate—first in first out HANDLING *** Wash hands *** Use only clean and uncracked eggs *** Use clean, sanitized utensils and equipment PREPARATION *** Cook eggs thoroughly *** Hold cold egg dishes below 40*F.

*** Hold hot egg dishes above 140* *** Never leave egg dishes at room temperature more than 1 hour. MAYONNAISE Ingredients: 2 pcs eggyolk 1 T vinegar, calamansi 2 t dry mustard 1 cup corn oil Salt and pepper to taste PROCEDURE: 1. Combine the yolks, vinegar and mustard in a bowl. Mix them well with a ballon whip until the mixture is slightly foamy. 2. Gradually add the oil in a thin stream, constantly beating with whip, until the oil is incorporated and the mayonnaise is thick. 3. Adjust the flavor with salt, pepper and lemon juice. 4. Refrigerate the mayonnaise immediately. Use as desired XIV. VEGETABLES I.

DEFINATION The culinary way of distinguishing vegetables from fruits is by virtue of use: vegetables are served with the meal as viand or salad. Vegetables are plants or parts of plants such as roots, tubers, bulbs, stems, shoots, leaves, fruits, and flowers used raw or cooked, served generally with the entree or in salad but not as dessert. II. CLASSFICATION OF VEGETABLES Vegetables are classified according to parts of plant used, chemical composition, and nutritive value. A. ACCORDING TO PARTS OF PLANT USED. 1. ROOTS—— are underground parts of plants. Good examples of these vegetables are kamote or sweet potato.

Kamoteng kahoy or cassava,carrot, taro,radish etc. 2. TUBERS—are short, thickened, fleshy parts of an underground stem such as potato. 3. BULBS——are under ground buds that ssend down roots and are made up of a very short stem covered with layers. Included in the group of garlic, leeks, onion, and shallots. 4. SEEDS___are parts from which a new plant will grow. They are referred to as pulses or legumes and include beans such as mongo, garbansos, chich pea, kidney beans, patani, soybeans, white beans. 5. STEM AND SHOOTS—are stalk supporting leaves, flower or fruits. these include celery.

Tankay ng gabi, bamboo shoots, malunggay, coconut pith. 6. LEAVES—-include alugbati,dahon ng ampalaya,talbos ng kamote,kangkong, and all members of onion family but different only in size of stems like shallots, leeks, scallion and spring onion. 7. FRUITS— include ampalaya, upo, sayote pipino, talong patola,kalabasa,kamatis, siling hindi maanghang,siling labuyo, and siling maanghang. B. ACCORDING TO CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 1. Carbohydrate-rich—such as seeds, roots, and tubers 2. Protein – rich—— include seeds such as legumes and pilse. like mung beans and soy beans. 3. Fat- rich—– such as nuts, olives and avocado.

4. High moisture content—such as mushroom,kamatis, celery,cauliflower, labanos lettuce, and cabbage. B. ACCORDING TO NUTRITIVE VALUE Vegetables may either be source of protein, vitamins or minerals. They are most commonly sought for because of their viramin A, vitamin B, or vitamin C content. ASSIGNMENT: Give the English name of the following vegetables: 1. alugbate 2. kangkong 3. patola 4. petsay 5. sayote 6. upo 7. gabi 8. saluyot 9. pako 10. malunggay BUTTERRED SNOW PEAS Ingredients: ? kilo snow peas 3 cloves garlic chopped ? sized onion ? cup sliced chicken 1 cup shelled shrimps ? cup shrimp juice 2 tsp butter.

2 pcs carrots sliced into cubes 1 pc sayote sliced into cubes 1 can corn kernel Salt to taste. PROCEDURE; 1. Blanch all vegetables for 3 mins and set aside. , 2. Saute onion and garlic, add chicken cook till tender add the shrimp juice. 3. Add the shelled shrimps. 4. Add the all vegetables and corn kernel, se 5. Season with salt. 6. Serve BUTTERED MIXED VEGETABLES Ingredients: 50 grams carrots, cut into desired size and shape 50 grams cut into desired size 50 grams sayote, cut into desired size and shape Salt butter PROCEDURE: 1. Cooked mixed vegetables using blanch and chill. 2. Melt the butter then add the pre cook vegetables.

XV. FATS AND OILS I.. DEFINITION Fats and oils are chemically the same, but in common usage, fats are solid while oils stay liquid at room temperature. They belong to the chemical class of compounds called lipids. Fats and oils re obtained from both plants and animals sources; only those from plants and cholesterol free. Fats from plants sources provide important essentials fatty acids which are precursors for a group of hormone like compounds that regulate a variety of physiological functions. III. USES OF FATS A. FRYING B. SHORTENING C. TABLE USE D. SALAD DRESSING SHORT QUIZ: 1. What is visible fat? Invisible fat?

WHITE ROUX Ingredients: 10 grams flour 10 grams clarified butter PROCEDURE; 1. Melt butter 2. Add flour and stir until fat and flour are thoroughly mixed 3. Cook to required degree for white roux. Cooking is done an a sauce pan on tip the stove and roux is stirred for even cooking. Use moderate beat for white roux. WHITE CREAM SAUCE Ingredients: 20 grams white roux 250 ml milk 1 small whole onion peeled 1 bay leaf Salt to taste Nutmeg White pepper PROCEDURE; 1. In a sauce pan, scald the milk. Gradually add it to the white roux, beating constantly. 2. Bring the sauce to a boil, stirring constantly. Reduce heat to a simmer.

3. Stick the bay leaf to the onion and add to the sauce. Simmer at least 15 minutes. Stir occasionally while cooking. 4. Adjust the consistency with more hot milk, if necessary. 5. Season very lightly with salt, nutmeg and white pepper. Spice flavors should not dominate. Strain the sauce. Cover or spread melted butter on surface to prevent sin formation. XVI. SALAD AND SALAD DRESSING I.. DEFINITION Many have wondered where the word “salad” came from. salad originated from Latin word “sal” which means salts. Way back in the days of Ceasar, Romans ate green sprinkled with salt. Salt was their only dressing then.

Hence, from the “sal” came salad. 1. Salad is a term used for a dish made of salad plants or greens, alone or in combination with other food? plus a dressing 2. Salad dressing is usually an emulsion. It contains acid, usually vinegar or lemon juice, fat seasoning and sometimes other ingredients/ 3. An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible liquids, one being suspended in the other. II. TYPES OF SALAD DRESSING 1. French dressing(proper choice of vinegar and oil) 2. Mayonnaise consist of salad wintered oil, vinegar or lemon juice, eggyolk or whole egg and seasoning such as salt, sugar, and spices. POTATO SALAD.

Ingredients: 1 pc potato,boiled and cut into large dice or cubes Mayonnaise Salt and pepper to taste Minced onion Procedure: 1. Mix mayonnaise, salt, pepper and minced onion, the light toast it into the cooked potato 2. Cover and chill. Serve cold/ XVII.. ALIMENTARY PASTES AND LOCAL NOODLES ALIMENTARY PASTES or pastas in Italian refer to a family of macaroni products of varying sizes and shapes. The most popular are spaghetti, macaroni, vermicelli, egg noodles and lasagna. ALIMENTARY PASTES are called noodles collective by consumers. Some authors refer to them as macaroni family. KINDS OF NOODLES 1.

Miki—these flat yellowish noodles is made from a dough mixture of wheat flour. 2. Sotanghon—long thin wiry translucent noodles also called cellophane noodlesare made from mung bean starch. 3. White bihon— thin noodles are made from rice and corn or rice only. 4. Pancit canton— these egg noodles are made from flour? duck eggs, salt and soda. 5. Miswa— made from cassava and wheat flour, these thread like white noodles can be cooked almost instantly.. PROPER COOKING OF NOODLES Pastas are usually packaged with the manufacturer’s tested cooking method written on the label. Use 8 to 10 times as much water as pasta for coking.

Add 1 teaspoon salt and 1 teaspoon oil to the boiling water. The addition of oil prevent foaming and sticking of the noodles. When the water is boiling vigorously, gently lower pasta and continue boiling with occasional stirring for uniform cook. Cook up to the al dente stage which means that the noodles are firm and chewy. Principles of cooking pasta are the same as for cereals and stachy pastas. There should be enough water to gelatinize the starch completely. Retention of shape is imperative. Overcooking will result in a mash. COOKING OF PASTA Ingredients: 200 grams pasta, spaghetti 12 gram salt 2 liter water.

15 ml oil PROCEDURE: 1. Use at least 2 quarts boiling water per 200g of pasta. Use about 12 g salt per 2 liter water. 2. Have the water boiling rapidly, and drop in the pasta. As it soften, stir gently to keep it from sticking together and to bottom 3. Continue to boil, stirring a few times. 4. As soon it is al dente, drain immediately in a colander and rinse with cold running water until the pasta is completely cold. Otherwise it would continue to cook and become too soft. 5. If the pasta to be held, toss gently with a small of oil to keep it ffrom sticking. 6. Measure portions into mounds on tray.

Cover with plastic film and refrigerate until service time. 7. To serve, place the desired number of portions in a china cup in simmering water to reheat. Drain, plate and add sauce. CHOCOLATE MOUSSE Ingredients: 40 g semi sweet chocolate 10 g butter 15g eggyolk 20 g eggwhite 5 g sugar 20 g heavy cream PROCEDURE: 1. Melt the chocolate over hot water or in a double boiler. 2. remove from the heat and add the butter. Stir until butter is melted and completely mixed in. 3. Add the yolk. Mix in yolk completely. 4. Beat egg whites until it form soft peaks. Do not over beat 5. Fold the egg whites into the chocolate.

6. Whip the heavy cream until it form soft peaks. Fold into the chocolate mixture. 7. spoon the mouse into the serving dishes. Chill the mousse well before servings. CLUB SANDWICH Ingredients: 3 slices white bread, toasted as needed Mayonnaise 2 leaves lettuce 2 slices tomato( about ? inch thick) 60 g sliced chicken breast or ham 4 pcs frills PROCEDURE: 1. Place the 3 slices of toast bread on a clean work surface. Spread the tops with mayonnaise. 2. On the first slice, place 1 lettuce leaf, then 2 slices of tomato. 3. place the second slice of toast on top spread side down.

4. Spread the top with mayonnaise 5.on the top of this place chicken, then the other lettuce leaf. 6. Top with third slice of toast spread side down. 7. place frilled picks on all 4 sides of the sandwich. 8. Cut the sandwich from corner to corner into 4 trinagles. Each triangle will have a pick through the center to hold it together. 9. place on a place with the points up. Questionnaire 1. What first treatment you take if sanitizing chemical agent goes to your eyes. Rinse with running water 2. What first treatment you take if accidentally shallow sanitizing agent? Flush with water and bring sample product to the doctor for antidote prescription.

3. How to do wash your hands. wash hands by wetting with water applying soap and scrubbing to elbows for 15 seconds. Rinse with running water and then dry using hands paper or a dryer. 4. The correct cleaning and sanitizing procedures for pot and pans pre rinse, rinse and sanitize 5. Why pre heating necessary when baking? to ensure the required temperature once the product put inside the oven. 6. Why do you think the techniques and method you use in baking was appropriate to the product you just make? pre heating of oven and correct measurement of ingredients 7.

Where do you store bread stock? Freezer or Chiller? ——Freezer because to lengthen the shelflife and preserve the moisture of the bread. 8. What preparation was done in order to follow hygienic sanitation? use tasting spoon, practice good personal hygiene, and wear complete uniform. 9. What are the items that should be listed in a label when storing in refrigerator? name of the items and date prepared. 10. How do you make mayonnaise out of raw ingredients? use eggyolk, add seasoning and flavoring and vegetable oil slowly, and add to create an emulsion.

11. What was used in cutting meat?filleting, deboning, slicing 12. how should you bread a product? ——apply flour, then egg, then breadcrumbs using different hands for dry and wet ingredients. 13. What procedure are used for closing? store all equipment and ingredients. 14. how do you make a roux? equal parts of butter and flour cook over low fire, to which stock is added. 15. how should you wrap soup for take out? depends on the availability of materials 16. What are the product that should be listed in a label for a product that will be stored? product name, date packed, weight of product..